What testosterone

Testosterone can be administered parenterally , but it has more irregular prolonged absorption time and greater activity in muscle in enanthate , undecanoate , or cypionate ester form. These derivatives are hydrolyzed to release free testosterone at the site of injection; absorption rate (and thus injection schedule) varies among different esters, but medical injections are normally done anywhere between semi-weekly to once every 12 weeks. A more frequent schedule may be desirable in order to maintain a more constant level of hormone in the system. [56] Injectable steroids are typically administered into the muscle, not into the vein, to avoid sudden changes in the amount of the drug in the bloodstream. In addition, because estered testosterone is dissolved in oil, intravenous injection has the potential to cause a dangerous embolism (clot) in the bloodstream.

“Synthetic oxytocin is sold as proprietary medication under the trade names Pitocin and Syntocinon, and as generic oxytocin. Oxytocin is destroyed in the gastrointestinal tract, so must be administered by injection or as nasal spray. It has a half-life of typically about three minutes in the blood, and given intravenously does not enter the brain in significant quantities – it is excluded from the brain by the blood–brain barrier. Evidence in rhesus macaques indicates oxytocin by nasal spray does enter the brain.[61] Oxytocin nasal sprays have been used to stimulate breastfeeding, but the efficacy of this approach is doubtful.[62]
Injected oxytocin analogues are used for labor induction and to support labor in case of difficult parturition. It has largely replaced ergometrine as the principal agent to increase uterine tone in acute postpartum hemorrhage. Oxytocin is also used in veterinary medicine to facilitate birth and to stimulate milk release. The tocolytic agent atosiban (Tractocile) acts as an antagonist of oxytocin receptors; this drug is registered in many countries to suppress premature labor between 24 and 33 weeks of gestation. It has fewer side effects than drugs previously used for this purpose (ritodrine, salbutamol, and terbutaline).
The trust-inducing property of oxytocin might help those who suffer from social anxieties and mood disorders,[45] but with the potential for abuse with confidence tricks[63][64] and military applications.[65]”

The five observational studies and the Xu meta-analysis were discussed at a joint meeting of the Bone, Reproductive and Urologic Drugs Advisory Committee and the Drug Safety and Risk Management Advisory Committee on September 17, 2014. Based on these findings, the advisory committee members were in general agreement that the signal of cardiovascular risk is weak and that only a prospective, well-controlled clinical trial could determine whether testosterone causes cardiovascular harm. The Corona study was recently published and could not be reviewed in time to be presented at the Advisory Committee meeting; however, we have reviewed the study and factored its findings into our overall assessment.

What testosterone

what testosterone

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