That fact doesn’t surprise us at the A2J Lab. What did grab our attention is that the authors received permission to run the study at all. As we mentioned in a recent post , all RCTs in the . need to receive institutional approval before human subjects can enroll in a study. Based on our experience, it would be fairly startling if this type of study, which flies so baldly in the face of “conventional wisdom,” were to receive approval in the United States. An ethical review committee could have responded that this evaluation would prevent some participants from receiving a “benefit,” namely the treatment they “need.” The deeper held the belief, the harder it is to accept or allow the introduction of contrary evidence. That’s why we need to test interventions rigorously, particularly when resources are scarce and lives are at stake.